Glossary of EV-related Definitions
Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV):
A vehicle with an engine designed to run on a fuel other than gasoline or diesel.
Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV):
An EV that does not have a combustion engine at all. Instead, it relies solely on a battery system and must be plugged into a charging source to replenish the charge.
Electric Vehicle (EV):
A vehicle that is propelled by a motor powered by electrical energy from rechargeable batteries or another source onboard the vehicle. This broad category includes all types of electric vehicles.
Electric Vehicle Support Equipment (EVSE):
The “charging” equipment used to maintain a charge on EV battery systems.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV):
An EV that combines an internal combustion engine with an electric propulsion system. The charge on the batteries is maintained through the normal operation of the engine.
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV):
An HEV that incorporates a separate battery system where the charge is maintained by plugging into an external power source (such as a standard electrical outlet).
There are several charging options available to EV consumers:
Level 1 EVSE is powered from a standard 120-volt outlet and can fully charge an all-electric vehicle in about 16 hours. A plug-in hybrid may charge to capacity in as little as six hours depending on the capacity of the battery pack.
Level 2 EVSE is powered from a 240-volt supply, similar to a water heater or clothes dryer, and is well suited for more quickly charging BEVs. Charging time is approximately eight hours.
Level 3 EVSE requires three-phase electric service and, at around $45,000, is the most expensive system. The primary benefit is the capability to charge the vehicle to approximately 80 percent capacity in 30 minutes. As more consumers begin driving electric vehicles, this type of charging infrastructure could be found along our roadways similar to gasoline stations today.